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North Borneo (now Sabah) is situated at the northern tip of Borneo Island (the third largest island in the world), it lies between 5° and 7° north of the Equator. It covers an area of 73,711 sq. km. (29,388 sq. miles) or about 10% of Borneo’s total area of 286,699 sq. miles, yet it has nearly 40% of the fresh-water fish species now known from Borneo.
One hundred and sixty eight species of fresh-water fishes are described in this book; among them 62 species are endemic to Borneo and 29 species are endemic to North Borneo.
The most interesting groups of the endemic fishes are the clinging-fishes, which are found in the mountain streams, especially in the Kinabalu Park, which comprise Gastromyzon (8 species), Glaniopsis (4 species), Protomyzon (4 species) and Neogastromyzon (1 species). The Giant Goramy or Ikan Kului, Osphronemus laticlavius, is perhaps the most spectacular fresh-water fish endemic to Sabah, which has found its way to the lucrative global ornamental fish trade in recent years.